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[Grammar] Article 7 USAGE

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Part 1


Expressing yourself clearly and effectively depends greatly on the words you choose and how you use them in sentences. The English language offers a rich and extensive vocabulary, but it also harbors a wealth of look-alike, sound-alike words that can confuse your message.




* accept (verb): Receive willing; agree to; consent to.


o John will accept the award at the luncheon on Thursday.


* except (preposition): Other than; with the exclusion of.


o All of the reports except Linda's have been turned in.




* adapt (verb): To adjust to the needs.


o You can adapt the report template to suit the information you wish to convey.


* adept (adjective): Proficient; extremely skilled.


o Angry customers soon calm down when Ellison speaks to them; she is adept at making people feel relaxed.


* adopt (verb): To choose.


o If we adopt the new rules for our meetings, things will be more orderly.




* adherence (noun): Attachment; following closely.


o Rules will only work if everyone is in adherence to them.


* adherents (plural noun): Supporters; followers.


o The adherents of the new proposal made sure they were at the meeting in order to show their support.




* adverse (adjective): Unfavorable, hostile.


o The President was opposed to adverse criticism.


* averse (adjective): Opposed (usually used with "to")


o The President was averse to hostile criticism.




* affect (verb): To influence (most common usage).


o The new policy will affect employee morale in a positive way.


* affect (noun): Feeling or emotion (rare usage).


o The patient demonstrated little affect during the session.


* effect (verb): To bring about, to cause (rare usage).


o The cost reduction program will effect layoffs of some staff members.


* effect (noun): Result, outcome (most common usage).


o What effect will the equipment malfunction have on shipment of the orders?




* aid (verb): To help.


o I would appreciate it if you could aid me in finding conference room 2B.


* aide (noun): An assistant.


o The department will be hiring an aide to help with all the paperwork this project is generating.




* allude (verb): to make an indirect reference.


o At the staff meeting, the manager alluded to the customer service complaints.


* elude (verb): To escape detection.


o The errors in the report eluded the proofreader.




* allusion (noun): Indirect reference.


o Harriet made an allusion to the other company's profitability in her report.


* illusion (noun): An erroneous, false perception.


o Perfect morale is an illusion in many companies today.




* alternate (noun): In place of another; substitute.


o I was selected as an alternate, to be there in case one of the jurors cannot finish the whole trial.


* alternative (adjective): One of several things from which to choose.


o Though several alternatives to the current method exist, the team only tried one before scrapping the project altogether.




* among (preposition): Used to describe relationships involving more than two people or things.


o The four of them decided among themselves where they wanted to have dinner.


* between (preposition): Used to describe relationships involving only two or for comparing one thing to a group in which it belongs.


o The choice was between New York and Los Angeles.




* ante- (prefix): Prefix meaning "before."


o We dedicate this memorial to our ancestors, to our antecedents in the community, to all those who have come before us.


* anti- (prefix): Prefix meaning "against."


o I hope my antiperspirant lasts through the meeting; I don't want them to see me break a sweat.




* anxious (adjective): Worried; disturbed; concerned.


o The anxious secretary checked three times for the overnight delivery.


* eager (adjective): Enthusiastic interested; keen.


o Susan was eager to start her new job.




* appraise (verb): To evaluate; to judge; to estimate.


o The head of Risk Management will appraise the four buildings before issuing insurance policies.


* apprise (noun): A foundation upon which something rests.


o I will apprise you of the board's decision immediately after Tuesday's meeting.




* bases (plural noun): Plural of "base" and of "basis."


o Let's make sure we cover all the bases of our pitch again before we make our final presentation.


* basis (noun): A foundation upon which something rests.


o On the basis of your stunning letters of recommendation, we have decided to hire you for the position.




* bizarre (adjective): Strikingly unconventional; odd; weird.


o I knew something bizarre was happening when the elevator was filled with balloons.


* bazaar (noun): A market.


o Every week during the summer a bazaar sets up in the parking lot to sell crafts and snacks.




* broach (verb): To introduce.


o I hate to broach the subject, but have you found out what led to Alan quitting last week?


* brooch (noun): A piece of jewelry.


o I don't usually wear jewelry, but my grandmother gave me this brooch recently and she's meeting me for lunch.




* capital (noun): Assets; money; seat of state government; upper case letter.


o The new plant represents a major capital investment.


o Denver is the capital of Colorado.


o Start each sentence with a capital letter.


* capitol (Noun): Building where the legislature meets.


o Capital Hill is usually a frenzy of activity.




* cash (noun): Money (slang).


o We have the cash to invest now, and we need to act while the market is hot.


* cache (noun): A hiding place.


o I know there is a cache of chocolate around here somewhere, just in case of emergencies.




* casual (adjective): Incidental; not formal


o We had a casual discussion about the case when we passed in the hall, but we did not have any meetings about it yet.


* causal (adjective): Expressed cause; relates to or constitutes a cause.


o The causal factor in the company's debt is that it spent more money than it took in.




* chord (noun): A combination of musical notes.


o The opening chord of this piece of music is a perfect representation of the energy our product delivers. Let's use it in the commercial.


* cord (noun): String or rope.


o Tie up the bundle of catalogues with cord so we can recycle them.




* cite (verb): To quote an authority; to acknowledge.


o Linda cited the first three quarterly reports in her year-end summary.


* sight (noun): Ability to see.


o Bill did not lose sight of problems in Operations when he moved to Purchasing.


* site: (noun): Location or place.


o Our company has three remote sites where manufacturing takes place.




* climatic (adjective): Relating to climax; the highest point.


o There will be some climatic discomfort in the office until the air conditioning is repaired.


* climactic


o Of course, the most climactic point of the conference occurred when the whiteboard fell over onto the laser projector and burst into flames.




* complement (verb): To complete or add value to something.


o The new safety program will complement perfectly the OSHA regulations implemented on January 1.


* complement (noun): Something that completes or brings to perfection.


o The wine was a delicious complement to the meal.


* compliment (verb): To praise.


o Susan complimented the staff on a job well done.


* compliment (noun): An expression of praise.


o Bill was embarrassed by the compliment.




* conscience (noun): A sense of right and wrong.


o Only someone with a complete lack of conscience would bilk old ladies out of their savings.


* conscious (adjective): Fully aware.


o I am conscious of the fact that sometimes you need to spend money to make money, but there are limits.




* continual (adjective): Occurring steadily, but with occasional stops or breaks.


o Because he continually missed his deadlines, he received a verbal warning.


* continuous (adjective): Unbroken, occurred without pauses, stops, or breaks.


o Niagara Falls receives a continuous flow of water from the river.




* council (noun): An advisory or legislative body.


o Sandra's position on the Executive Council will last for two years.


* counsel (noun): Advice or help.


o Mary sought counsel from Brian about whether or not she should interview for the new position.


* counsel (verb): To advise.


o The dietitian will counsel the patient about nutritious meal plans.


* consul (noun) A government official who resides in a foreign city and represents fellow citizens there.


o The consul promised to check into the snarled paperwork.




* criticize (verb): To judge negatively.


o It is a bad idea to criticize our new programs in front of the fund raisers who made them possible in the first place.


* critique (verb): To evaluate.


o Now that the project is complete, I'd like to critique our process so we know what to repeat, and what aspects need changing.




* decent (adjective): Proper, adequate, downward.


o If we do a decent job at promoting this product, it will fly off the shelves.


* descent (noun): The act of moving downward.


o The descent of the company to second in the market is unacceptable to driven CEO.


* dissent (noun): Disagreement.


o The dissent in the room was audible in the loud groans we heard when the idea was presented.




* deduce (verb): To infer, to draw a conclusion.


o I deduce from your wet umbrella that it is still raining outside.


* deduct (verb): To subtract from.


o My balance is low because every week I deduct more from account than I put in.




* defuse (verb): To make less harmful, potent, or tense.


o A trained negotiator can defuse a difficult situation between irritated parties.


* diffuse (verb): To spread out; to scatter.


o The lamps in the waiting room are too harsh; we need shades to diffuse the light.




* disapprove (verb): To express lack of approval.


o I disapprove of the way that some people take two-hour lunches and leave the work to the rest of us.


* disprove (verb): To prove false.


o The fact that our department is first in sales this quarter should disprove all those who criticized our plan.




* disburse (verb): To pay out.


o The comptroller will not disburse the funds until the proper signatures have been received.


* disperse (verb): To scatter.


o The police asked the crowd to disperse after the party got out of hand.




* disinterested (adjective): Impartial, fair, and objective.


o Sally was asked to be a disinterested member of the committee in formulating the new policy.


* uninterested (adjective): Not interested.


o Tom is uninterested in participating in the flex-time program.




* elicit (verb): To draw forth.


o I tried to elicit a response from Jasper about what to order for lunch, but he said nothing.


* illicit (adjective): Amoral.


o The illicit ivory trade has led to the poaching of animals for nothing but their tusks.




* elusive (adjective): Hard to catch.


o The goal is elusive for now, but once we have a decent team together, success will be ours.


* illusive (adjective): Unreal; imaginary.


o The illusive Phoenix is an appropriate symbol for rebirth and renewal.




* emerge (verb): To rise out of.


o Green shoots began to emerge from the soil soon after the bulbs were planted.


* immerge (verb): To plunge into.


o Immerge your hand in cold water immediately so it won't swell.




* eminent (adjective): Well-known.


o We are fortunate to have an eminent scholar on Egyptian sculpture as our lecturer today.


* immanent (adjective): Existing within; inherent


o Some feel that greed is immanent in human nature, while others believe in honest human kindness.


* imminent (adjective): Impending; soon to arrive.


o Alexander spent all his time on the phone making arrangements for his imminent vacation.


Everyday/every day


* everyday (adjective): Ordinary.


o We should sue the special china for dinner tonight; receiving a promotion is not an everyday occurrence!


* every day (adjective) (noun): Each day.


o Make sure to back up your data every day before you leave the office.




* exalt (verb): To raise in rank; glorify.


o Allison was exalted and given another promotion for doubling the client base upon taking over the department.


* exult (verb): To rejoice.


o While we all want to exult in the moment of our team's destruction of property is no way to show one's joy.

Edited by TalonRider
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